Research Gate
Here free self-made PDFs
of most papers are available


Introduction to Metacognition: Fiedler, K., Ackerman, R., & Scarampi, C. (2019). Metacognition: Monitoring and controlling one’s own knowledge, reasoning and decisions. In R. J. Sternberg & J. Funke (Eds.). Introduction to the Psychology of Human Thought (pp. 89-111). Heidelberg: Heidelberg University Publishing. [Open Access]

Ackerman, R., Onan, E., & De Bruin, A. (2022). Friendly tips for conducting online behavioral studies. [Open Access]


Introduction: Ackerman, R., & Thompson, V. (2017). Meta-Reasoning:  Monitoring and control of thinking and reasoning. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 21(8), 607-617. [Journal’s website]

Meta-Reasoning website




Ackerman, R., & Zalmanov, H. (2012). The persistence of the fluency-confidence association in problem solving. Psychonomic Bulleting & Review, 19(6), 1189-1192.[Journal’s website]

Thompson, V., Prowse Turner, J., Pennycook, G., Ball, L., Brack, H., Ophir, Y., & Ackerman, R. (2013). The role of answer fluency and perceptual fluency as metacognitive cues for initiating analytic thinking. Cognition, 128, 237-251. [Journal’s website]

Thompson, V., Ackerman, R., Sidi, Y., Pennycook, G., Ball, L., & Prowse Turner, J. A. (2013). The role of answer fluency and perceptual fluency in the monitoring and control of reasoning: Reply to Alter, Oppenheimer, & Epley (2013). Cognition, 128, 256-258.

Ackerman, R. (2014). The Diminishing Criterion Model for metacognitive regulation of time investment. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143(3), 1349-1368. [Journal’s website]

Ackerman, R. & Thompson, V. (2015). Meta-Reasoning: What can we learn from meta-memory. In A. Feeney & V. Thompson (Eds.), Reasoning as Memory (pp. 164-182). Hove, UK: Psychology Press.

Meyer, A., Frederick, S., Burnham, T., Guevara Pinto, J. D., Boyer, T. W., Ball, L. J., Pennycook, G., Ackerman, R., Thompson, V., & Schuldt, J. P. (2015). Disfluent fonts don’t help people solve math problems. Journal of Experimental Psychology:    General,144(2), e16-e30. [Journal’s website]

Sidi, Y., Ophir, Y., Ackerman, R. (2016). Generalizing Screen Inferiority – Does the Medium, Screen versus Paper, Affect Performance Even with Brief Tasks? Metacognition & Learning, 11(1), 15-33. [Journal’s website]

Ackerman, R., & Beller, Y. (2017). Shared and distinct cue utilization for metacognitive judgments during reasoning and memorization. Thinking & Reasoning, 23:4, 376-408. [Journal’s website]

Ackerman, R. & Thompson, V. (2017). Meta-Reasoning: Shedding meta-cognitive light on reasoning research. L. Ball & V. Thompson (Eds.), The Routledge International Handbook of Thinking & Reasoning (pp.1-15). Psychology Press.

Sidi, Y., Shpigelman, M., Zalmanov, H., & Ackerman, R. (2017). Understanding metacognitive inferiority on screen by exposing cues for depth of processing. Learning and Instruction, 51, 61-73. [Journal’s website]

Ackerman, R. (2019). Heuristic cues for meta-reasoning judgments: Review and methodology. Psychological Topics, 28(1), 1-20. [Open Access] [Online talk]

Dentakos, S., Saoud, W., Ackerman, R., & Toplak, M. E. (2019). Does Domain Matter? Monitoring Accuracy across Domains. Metacognition and Learning, 14(3), 413–436. [Journal’s website]

Lauterman, T., & Ackerman, R. (2019). Initial Judgment of Solvability in non-verbal problems – A predictor of solving processes. Metacognition and Learning, 14(3), 365–383. [Journal’s website]

Morsanyi, K., Ní Cheallaigh, N., & Ackerman, R. (2019). Mathematics anxiety and metacognitive processes: Proposal for a new line of inquiry. Psychological Topics, 28(1), 147-169. [Open Access]

Ackerman, R. A., Douven, I., Elqayam, S., & Teodorescu, K. (2020). Satisficing, meta-reasoning, and the rationality of further deliberation. In S. Elqayam, I. Douven, J. St. B. T. Evans, & N. Cruz (Eds.), Logic and uncertainty in the human mind: A tribute to David Over. London, UK: Routledge.

Ackerman, R., Yom-Tov, E., & Torgovitsky, I. (2020). Using confidence and consensuality to predict time invested in problem solving and in real-life web searching. Cognition, 199, 104248. [Journal’s website] [Online talk]

Fiedler, K., Schott, M., Kareev, Y., Avrahami, J., Ackerman, R., Goldsmith, M., … Pantazi, M. (2020). Metacognitive myopia in change detection: A collective approach to overcome a persistent anomaly. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 46(4), 649–668. [Journal’s website]

Scheiter, K., Ackerman, R., & Hoogerheide, V. (2020). Looking at mental effort appraisals through a metacognitive lens: Are they biased?. Educational Psychology Review, 1-25. [Journal’s website]

Sidi. Y., Torgovitsky, I., Soibelman, D.,Miron-Spektor, E., & Ackerman, R. (2020). You may be more original than you think: Predictable biases in self-assessment of originality. Acta Psychologica, 203, 103002. [Journal’s website] [Article in Psychology Today]

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Metacognitive aspects of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI)

Ackerman, R., & Goldsmith, M. (2011). Metacognitive regulation of text learning: On screen versus on paper. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 17(1), 18-32. [Journal’s website]

Ackerman, R., & Lauterman, T. (2012). Taking reading comprehension exams on screen or on paper? A metacognitive analysis of learning texts under time pressure. Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 1816-1828.[Journal’s website]

Lauterman, T., & Ackerman, R. (2014).  Overcoming screen inferiority in learning and calibration. Computers in Human Behavior, 35, 455-463. [Journal’s website]

Ackerman, R., Parush, A., Nassar, F., & Shtub, A. (2016). Metacognition and system usability: Incorporating metacognitive research paradigm into usability testing. Computers in Human Behavior, 54,101-113. [Journal’s website]

Sidi, Y., Ophir, Y., Ackerman, R. (2016). see above, under Meta-Reasoning.

Sidi, Y., Shpigelman, M., Zalmanov, H., & Ackerman, R. (2017). see above, under Meta-Reasoning.

Delgado, P., Vargas, C., Ackerman, R., & Salmerón, L. (2018). Don’t throw away your printed books: A meta-analysis on the effects of reading media on comprehension. Educational Research Review, 25, 23-38. [Journal’s website]

Wylie, J., Thomson, J., Leppänen, P., Ackerman, R., Kanniainen, L. & Prieler, T. (2018). Cognitive processes and digital reading. In M. Barzillai, J. Thomson, P. van den Broek & S. Schroeder (Eds). Learning to Read in a Digital World. (pp. 57-90). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. [Publisher’s website]

Ackerman, R., Gal, A., Sagi, T., Shraga, R. (2019). A cognitive model of human bias in matching. In Pacific Rim International Conference on Artificial Intelligence (PRICAI, pp. 632-646). Springer, Cham (Computer science conference proceedings; authors are in alphabetical order). [Springer]

Ackerman, R., Yom-Tov, E., & Torgovitsky, I. (2020). see above, under Meta-Reasoning.

Online Lectures:

2016 (Hebrew) – How to analyze and improve learning? – A metacognitive view

2018 (Hebrew) – Overview of Behavioral & Management Science group + metacognitive aspects of human-computer interaction

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Answering Challenging Questions

Ackerman, R., & Goldsmith, M. (2008). Control over grain size in memory reporting – with and without satisficing knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34, 1224-1245. [Journal’s website]

Bernstein, D., Aßfalg A., Kumar, R, & Ackerman, R. (2016). Looking backward and forward on hindsight bias. In J. Dunlosky & U. Tauber (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Metamemory (pp. 289-304). Oxford University Press.

Sidi, Y., Ackerman, R., & Erez, A. (2018). Feeling happy and (over)confident: The role of positive affect in metacognitive processes. Cognition & Emotion, 32(4), 876-884. [Journal’s web site]

Ackerman, R., Bernstein, D. M., & Kumar, R. (2020). Metacognitive hindsight bias. Memory & Cognition, 48, 731-744. [Read-only free Journal version] [Journal’s website]

Undorf, M., Livneh, I., & Ackerman, R. (2021). Metacognitive control processes in question answering: Help seeking and withholding answers. Metacognition & Learning, 16, 431–458. [Open Access]

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Koriat, A., Ackerman, R., Lockl, K., & Schneider, W. (2009). The easily learned, easily-remembered heuristic in children. Cognitive Development, 24, 169-182. [Journal’s website]

Koriat, A., Ackerman, R., Lockl, K., & Schneider, W. (2009). The memorizing effort heuristic in judgments of learning: A developmental perspective. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 102, 265-279. [Journal’s website]

Hoffmann‐Biencourt, A., Lockl, K., Schneider, W., Ackerman, R., & Koriat, A. (2010). Self‐paced study time as a cue for recall predictions across school age. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 28(4), 767-784. [Journal’s website]

Koriat, A., & Ackerman, R. (2010). Choice latency as a cue for children’s subjective confidence in the correctness of their answers. Developmental Science, 13, 441-453. [Journal’s website]

Ackerman, R., & Koriat, A. (2011). Response latency as a predictor of the accuracy of children’s reports. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 17(4), 406-417. [Journal’s website]

Koriat, A., & Ackerman, R. (2010). Metacognition and Mindreading: Judgments of learning for Self and Other during self-paced Study. Consciousness and Cognition, 19, 251-264. [Journal’s website]

Koriat, A., Ackerman, R., Adiv, S., Lockl, K., & Schneider, W. (2014). The effects of goal-driven and data-driven regulation on metacognitive monitoring during learning: A developmental perspective. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143(1), 386-403.  [Journal’s website]

Koriat, A., Nussinson, R., & Ackerman, R. (2014).  Judgments of learning depend on how learners interpret study effort. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 6, 1624-1637. [Journal’s website]

Undorf, M., & Ackerman, R. (2017). The puzzle of study time allocation for the most challenging items. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 24(6), 2003-2011. [Journal’s website]

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Ackerman, R., & Goldsmith, M. (2011). see above under HCI.

Ackerman, R., & Lauterman, T. (2012). see above under HCI.

Ackerman, R., Leiser, D., & Shpigelman, M. (2013). Is comprehension of problem solutions resistant against misleading heuristic cues? Acta Psychologica, 143(1), 105–112. [Journal’s website]

Ackerman, R., & Leiser, D. (2014).  The effect of concrete supplements on metacognitive regulation during learning and open-book test taking. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(2), 329–348. [Journal’s website]

Lauterman, T., & Ackerman, R. (2014).  see above under HCI.

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